middle colonies demographics
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middle colonies demographics

middle colonies demographics

Demographics/population characteristics The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. The Southern Colonies were an Oligarchy, which meant that wealthy plantation owners controlled the government since they could pay for their expenses. Colonial status ended for the new state with the United States Declaration of Independence in July 1776. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. *The Middle Colonies were part of the 13 original colonies.The colonies included in the Middle Colonies were: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. [9] On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, which made for a diverse (albeit largely Christian) populace. [24] Other groups included the French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders.[25]. [22], German immigrants favored the Middle Colonies. [13] When Henry Sloughter became the new governor in March 1691, the rebellion was crushed and its leader, Jacob Leisler was arrested, tried, and executed for treason. These indentured servants were the primary migrant to the British settlements of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, Jamaica and Barbados. The English colonies of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Pennsylvania (PA) and Delaware (DE) are referred to as the 'middle colonies'. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. A Colonial Assembly convened in October 1683, making New York the last colony to seat an assembly. The Middle Colonies also practiced trade like New England, but typically they were trading raw materials for manufactured items. After Hyde was recalled to England in 1708 over charges of graft, bribery, and corruption, the governor of New York was charged to also preside over New Jersey. The title of patroon was given to some of the Dutch colony's invested members, who operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. [10] Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. However, upon learning of the constitution, James II declared it void.[3]. In April 1775, American patriots formed the New York Provincial Congress to replace the assembly. Farms in the Middle Colonies were anywhere between 50 and 150 acres with a house, barn, yard and fields. Non-British colonists included Dutch Calvinist, Swedish Lutherans, Palantine Mennonites, and the Amish.[27]. They were unusual, however, for their degree … As of early 2017, the US population is just shy of 325 million people, a 130X increase over 241 years. The English captured the New Netherland Colony from the Dutch in 1664, renaming it the Province of New York after the King's brother, Duke of York James II. Demarcated at the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. As we know, New York had a mixed colony of settlers. Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power. The middle colonies were extremely diverse in their demographics. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. The partly unglaciated Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil vastly different from the nearby New England Colonies, which contained more rocky soil. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. [19] However, there were numerous pockets of neutrals and Loyalists. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies and what would become the United States. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity. All boys learned a skill or trade. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Many of the frontier provinces saw influxes of immigrants due to the availability of cheap land. After joining the Dominion of New England, however, Rhode Island was permanently thought of as a New England colony. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. The middle colonies were enriched by the culture of people from all over Europe, including Quakers, Scots, Irish, Dutch, French, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, and more. They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, which were often Lutheran. These colonies were the Province of New Hampshire, the Providence of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and the Connecticut Colony. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. Penn, upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though few such servants worked in agriculture. [6] The first governor appointed in this way was Philip Carteret, who founded Elizabethtown. Both the poor and the middle class immigrated as indentured servants. Demographics in the colonies: Both the Chesapeake and Southern colonies were made up of a majority of single, young, white men who worked as indentured servants. [2][3] The colony's land was periodically granted to various proprietors and split into the Province of New York and the Province of Pennsylvania. [14] When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York, and dubbed them "The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River". Characteristics of Colonial Regions: Middle Colonies •Geography & Economy –Good Land to be Cleared, Three Major Rivers (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna), Good Harbors –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. Colonial Demographics • Define demographics: • List the key measures of demographics: • Study this chart and the resources noted in the textbook. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. [3] The Dutch would later recapture the colony in July 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, but gave the colony back to the English in the Treaty of Westminster in exchange for Suriname. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. While both colonies were largely English, the Middle Colonies of Pennsylvania and New York had more nationalities in them due to their religious tolerance. It examines not only “high” matters of theology and leadership, but also elements of faith closer to the experience of the masses of worshippers. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. After Bacon's Rebellion, the Chesapeake and Southern colonies moved towards using enslaved laborers brought from West Africa. The primary religion of the New England colonies was the strict Puritan Christianity originally brought to the Massachusetts Bay colony by ships like the Mayflower, but as the colonies grew and changed, some of the colonists began to move away from that base. Deep water allowed for numerous entries … 1610 350 (all in Virginia) 1620 2,302 (Virginia and Plymouth Plantation) Map of the United States: Battle Sites 1689-1945. Because of the large grain exports resulting from this soil, the colonies came to be known as the Bread Basket Colonies. The chart below shows the total population of Britain’s colonies from the founding of Jamestown, Va., in 1607 to the 1790 census, the first census of the U.S. government. Colonists were required to pay annual quit-rent taxes. Similarities between north and south colonies America is considered as a land of diversity and peace since it was established, the diversity and peace is evident during the period when the first English settlers came to America . By 1685 its population was almost 9,000. Many great men would come from the Middle Colonies. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. One important event that happened in the Middle Colonies during the colonial period was the Zenger Trial in 1735. The Congress had Royal Governor William Franklin arrested on June 15, declaring him "an enemy to the liberties of this country". While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. The Middle Colonies were not as cohesive as the New England colonies because colonists in this region were not united by single religion or code of beliefs. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The publication of the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 by locally-elected revolutionaries concluded the history of the Colony and began the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. When the Duke of York James II became the King of England, New York became a royal province. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. The First Great Awakening invigorated religiosity and helped stimulate the growth of Congregational, Methodist and Baptist churches. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. So too did views on the Native Americans who shared their land. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. Britain and the Settling of the Colonies: 1600–1750, American Indian tribes that had long occupied the area later to be conquered as the Middle. All boys learned a skill or trade. Typically religious men of the English or Welsh origin that range from wealthy to lower middle class and are very determined if they crossed the seas to colonize. Main article: Delaware ColonyDelaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between 1631 and 1655. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians were all represented, which made it impossible for one religion to dominate and gave a greater freedom of religion than any of the New England Colonies, with exception to Rhode Island. The colonies all had similar constitutions, legal systems, and political systems in place. [8] Finally, in 1738, King George II appointed a separate governor, Lewis Morris, to run New Jersey. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area first appeared around 1613. Look for important similarities and differences. [12][17], The Middle Colonies political groups began as small groups with narrowly focused goals. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. There was four colonies known as the middle colonies. [26], Many British Middle colonists were Quakers. Main article: Province of New York. Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, 1775. Other important industries including printing, publishing, the related industry of papermaking. In an early attempt to encourage European settlement, the New Jersey legislature enacted a prohibitive tariff against imported slaves and in favor of European indentured servitude. Philadelphia and New York became well-known trading centers, with Philadelphia in particular becoming an important shipbuilding center. John Peter Zenger was arrested for writing against the royal governor of New York. This essay presents an overview of the diversity of the religious experience of the inhabitants of the Middle Colonies between 1680 and 1730, largely in terms of denominations broadly defined. That wealthy plantation owners controlled the government since they could pay for their expenses the! 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